London Clay Pipe Studies

The clay tobacco pipe industry in the parishes of St Margaret and St John the Evangelist, Westminster

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Contents

INTRODUCTION

 

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

    A brief description of the parishes

    The economic life of the parishes

THE ORIGINS OF THE WESTMINSTER CLAY PIPE INDUSTRY

Great St Anne's Lane (1739–58)

    Benjamin Turner

54 OLD PYE STREET (1749–1809)

    John Powell

    Turner

    John Harrison (?Senior)

    The Tester family

    John Harrison (Junior)

79 (later 86) Great Peter Street (1760–1825)

    Robert and William Ridout

    William and Joseph McKay

    James Harrison

    The Webb family

    Henry Powell

11 (later 16) Great Peter Street (1795–1841)

    James Harrison

    The Brown family

MARSHAM STREET (1800–1809?)

    Robert Baddeley

GARDENER’S LANE AND BLUE ANCHOR YARD (1823–54)

    George Joseph Swinyard

    Thomas George Swinyard

    Joseph Kent

    Richard Critchfield

16 (later 22) PARKER STREET (1832–69)

   The Brooksbanks family

11 GREYCOAT PLACE (1833) AND 4 OLD ROCHESTER ROW (1836–99)

    William Monks    

    John Joseph Wolfe

    Thomas Stavely Longstaff

    William Smith

    George Payne

    George J Shepherd

42 NEW PETER STREET (1841–87)

    William Brown

    John Vickers Burges

    The Clarke family

CONCLUSIONS

LIST OF PIPE MAKERS

APPENDICES

    1    Catalogue of the pipes from 18 Great Peter Street (SAL94)

    2    Occupants of Pipemaker's Alley, 1739–90

    3    Occupants of Pipe Alley, 1739 – (at least) 1747

    4    The last Will and Testament of James Harrison

    5    The last Will and Testament of George Brown

    6    Apprenticeship indenture of Henry May

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

BIBLIOGRAPHY

 

Figures

Fig 1 Map of modern Westminster with parish boundaries superimposed
Fig 2 Extract from William Morgan's map of c. 1680, showing the town of Westminster and part of Tothill Fields
Fig 3 Location map showing the archaeological site at 18 Great Peter Street (blue) and the area of the watching brief where most of the pipes were found (red). The probable location of Benjamin Turner's house and the former position of Pipemaker's Alley are shown also
Fig 4 Extract from Horwood's map of 1792–9 showing the two buildings on the site occupied previously by Benjamin Turner
Fig 5 Extract from Horwood's map of 1792–9, locating 54 (formerly 53) Old Pye Street
Fig 6 Extract from Horwood's map of 1792–9, locating 79 Great Peter Street
Fig 7 A pipe bearing the marks of George Benson and (perhaps) James Harrison, from the Thames foreshore at Westminster (drawing by Colin Tatman)
Fig 8 Pipe fragments made by I (or J) Powell of Westminster, from the Thames foreshore at Westminster (drawings by Colin Tatman)
Fig 9 Extract from Horwood's map of 1792–9, locating 11 Great Peter Street (magenta). Also shown is Harrison's previous house and workshop at 79 Great Peter Street (cyan)
Fig 10 The Rainford farmhouse purchased in 1804 by James Harrison (photograph by Ron Dagnall)
Fig 11 Pipes made by George Brown, from the Thames foreshore at Westminster (drawings by Colin Tatman)
Fig 12 Pipes made by William Brown, from the Thames foreshore at Westminster (drawings by Colin Tatman)
Fig 13 A pipe fragment marked Brown/Westminster, from the Thames foreshore at Westminster (drawings by Colin Tatman)
Fig 14 Extract from Horwood's map of 1792–9 locating the house in Marsham Street occupied by Robert Baddeley
Fig 15 Extract from Horwood's map of 1792–9 showing the approximate locations of the houses occupied by George Joseph Swinyard and Thomas George Swinyard in Gardiner's Lane (magenta) and Thomas George Swinyard and Richard Critchfield in Blue Anchor Yard (cyan)
Fig 16 Extract from the Ordnance Survey map of 1869, locating the house in Parker Street occupied by the Brooksbanks family
Fig 17 Fragment of a pipe probably made by William Monks, from the Thames foreshore at Westminster (drawing by Colin Tatman)
Fig 18 Extract from the Ordnance Survey map of 1869 showing the probable location of 4 Old Rochester Row
Fig 19 Fragment of a pipe made by Thomas Stavely Longstaff, from the Thames foreshore at Westminster (drawing by Colin Tatman)
Fig 20 Fragment of a pipe made by William Smith at 4 Old Rochester Row, from the Thames foreshore at Westminster (drawing by Colin Tatman)
Fig 21 Extract from Horwood's map of 1792–9, locating the house in New Peter Street that would be occupied later by William Brown
Fig 22 Extract from the first edition Ordnance Survey of 1869 locating 42 New Peter Street, and showing an extension at the rear that seems to have been added during the 19th century

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