London Clay Pipe Studies

The clay tobacco pipe industry in the parishes of St Margaret and St John the Evangelist, Westminster

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Appendices

Appendix 1: Catalogue of the pipes from 18 Great Peter Street (SAL94)

Bowl types with the prefix AO have been classified according to the Chronology of Bowl Types (Atkinson and Oswald 1969, 7). Those prefixed OS have been classified according to the Simplified General Typology (Oswald 1975, 37). The pipes are grouped according to mould numbers (on the left, in italics) that have been assigned by the writer. MoLAS context (archaeological deposit) numbers are in square brackets, followed by individual Museum of London accession numbers. Bold accession numbers indicate the examples that have been photographed (by the writer) for this report. Use the hyperlinks to view individual photographs.

Pipes from contexts [13] and [202]

Pipes marked BT

01 Type AO26. Prince of Wales feathers (without the motto) are moulded poorly in low relief on the back of the bowl (facing the smoker) and a large, crude flower with pointed leaves appears on the front. The maker’s initials are moulded in low relief on the forward-pointing spur. The seam-lines are prominent and often trimmed poorly. The halves of the bowl are slightly offset and this, together with the poor quality of the decoration, suggests a very worn mould. Most of these pipes were not smoked. Probably the same as a pipe from Lambeth, published previously (Le Cheminant 1981a, 96; Fig 2, no. 15). There are 66 examples from the same mould.

[13] 19, 24, 30, 34, 38, 42, 48, 57, 58; [202] 85, 87, 89, 97, 98, 111, 113, 117, 121, 128, 135, 144, 145, 155, 162, 163, 164, 167, 169, 171, 173, 178, 186, 195, 200, 201, 208, 212, 215, 219, 220, 224, 228, 230, 236, 238, 240, 241, 242, 243, 246, 247, 248, 252, 256, 259, 277, 282, 285, 286, 288, 293, 295, 299, 301, 306, 314

02

Type AO26. A plain bowl, wide and with fairly thick walls. Internally, the base of the bowl slopes down towards the stem. These are generally of poor quality and none have been smoked. There are 20 examples, six of which have internal bowl crosses. One of the fragmentary bowls (photographed) bears part of a hand-written inscription in red ink. The script is difficult to decipher: on the right side of the bowl is the word Cus(?t)..., and on the right side of the stem are the words, …nt (or wt) lane.

[13] 10, 15, 25, 50, 51; [202] 102, 104, 114, 130, 160, 181, 234 (inscribed), 235, 260, 266, 297, 300, 309, 317, 351 [ 02right.jpg ]

03

Type AO26. Decorated with Prince of Wales feathers (without the motto) on the back and a large tulip on the front. The moulding is very clear. The design is almost identical to number 01. There are four examples, two of which have been over-fired or burnt and have small plugs of mortar filling the upper part of the bowl. The reason for this is not known. One of the un-burnt examples has an internal cross in relief on the base of the bowl. 

[202] 209, 198, 287, 334 [ 03back.jpg ] [ 03front.jpg ]

04

Type AO26. Decorated with Prince of Wales feathers (without the motto) on the back and vines with bunches of grapes on the front. The moulding is poor. The grape design is similar to an example illustrated by Atkinson and Oswald, on a BT pipe from Ebury Street, London (Atkinson and Oswald 1980, 377, fig 3, no. 18). There are two examples, neither of which has been smoked.

[202] 203, 298 [ 04back.jpg ] [ 04front.jpg ]

Pipes marked W

05

Type AO26. Decorated with the Hanoverian arms with lion and unicorn supporters above a ribbon displaying the usual motto of DIEU ET MON DROIT. The front of the bowl is decorated with leaves and tendrils. The quality of the moulding varies although none of the pipes are particularly well made. The single initial appears on the left side of the spur, which projects forward and is unusually thick. There are 31 examples from the same mould.

[13] 13, 16, 17, 18, 20, 21, 26, 27, 28, 31, 32, 37, 44, 46, 47, 49, 54, 56, 60, 61, 62; [202] 96, 142, 180, 213, 239, 258, 271, 276, 292 [ 05left.jpg ] [ 05right.jpg ]

Pipes marked IP

06

Type AO26. Decorated with the Hanoverian arms with lion and unicorn supporters and a lion courant to left astride the crown. The motto reads DIEU ET MON DRO. The front of the bowl is decorated with a large tulip with widely-spaced leaves. The moulding is poor generally, with much loss of detail. This bowl has been published previously (Le Cheminant 1981b, 117, fig 12, no. 27). There are six examples from the same mould.

[202] 110, 112, 165, 199, 264, 318 [ 06left.jpg ] [ 06front.jpg ] [ 06right.jpg ]

07

Type OS12. A plain bowl with crudely formed initials. There are two examples, both having been smoked.

[202] 103, 231

08

Type AO26. Decorated with large Prince of Wales feathers (without the motto) on the back. The front of the bowl is absent. This bowl has been published previously (Le Cheminant 1981b, 111, fig 6, no. 13). There is one example, which has not been smoked.

[202] 221 [ 08back.jpg ]

Other pipes with makers’ marks

09 Marked EF. Type AO26, plain bowl. Two examples from the same mould. [13] 40, 352
10 Marked IH. Type OS12. The H may have been re-cut from an original W. Smoked. [202] 101
11 Marked WP. Type OS12. A plain bowl with large initials. Smoked. [202] 119
12 Marked WR (crowned). Type OS12. An unsmoked waster, the bowl having been pierced by the moulding wire. [202] 210
13 Marked SS. Type OS12. A plain bowl with crude initials. Unsmoked. [202] 159
14

Marked T (altered to B) W. Decorated with well-moulded Prince of Wales feathers on the back, with a ribbon to either side bearing the usual motto of ICH DIEN. The front of the bowl is plain. Smoked. [202] 127 [ 14left.jpg ] [ 14right.jpg ]

15 Marked B? Type AO26. A narrow, burnished bowl with a vertical spur. The right side of the spur has been broken off. Smoked. [202] 269
16 Marked I? Type AO25. An over-fired waster that is encrusted with fired clay, indicating that it was used as reinforcing in a kiln muffle. [202] 294
17 Marked I. Type AO26. The single, large initial is on the right side of the spur, perpendicular to the stem. The bowl is decorated with Hanoverian arms with lion and unicorn supporters over a ribbon with the motto DIEU ET DROIT. The front of the bowl (which is incomplete), is decorated with ostrich feather plumes and a coronet. [202] 267 [ 17right.jpg ]
18 Uncertain symbol. Type AO26. A bowl fragment with a broken spur bearing part of a symbol, possibly a fleur de lys. Unsmoked. [202] 308

Decorated pipes without makers’ marks

19

Type AO26. The back of the bowl bears the Hanoverian arms with lion and unicorn supporters and the motto DIEU ET MON DROIT in a ribbon. The front of the bowl has two pairs of ostrich feather plumes separated by a coronet and topped with a single plume. The royal arms are moulded poorly, although the frontal decoration is quite distinct. There are 84 examples, most of which have not been smoked.

[13] 22, 29, 33, 35, 36, 39, 43, 52, 53, 55, 63, 65, 66, 67, 68; [202] 84, 86, 88, 90, 92, 93, 94, 95, 105, 106, 116, 118, 124, 126, 131, 136, 138, 141, 146, 147, 148, 150, 152, 153, 154, 156, 157, 158, 166, 170, 172, 174, 175, 176, 184, 188, 189, 196, 202, 204, 207, 211, 217, 222, 225, 226, 229, 233, 244, 245, 249, 251, 253, 254, 261, 263, 270, 273, 279, 281, 283, 289, 303, 305, 307, 310, 311, 313, 319 [ 19left.jpg ] [ 19right.jpg ]

20

Type AO26. Hanoverian arms with unusually large supporters moulded poorly and with little clear detail. The front of the bowl is not decorated. There are three examples, none of which have been smoked.

[202] 108, 214, 274 [ 20left.jpg ] [ 20right.jpg ]

21

Type AO26. Hanoverian arms with supporters and a ribbon bearing the motto DIEU ET MON DROIT. The design is finely detailed, even to the lion’s whiskers. The front of the bowl is undecorated. There are two examples, both of which have been smoked.

[13] 45, 64 [ 21left.jpg ] [ 21right.jpg ]

22

Type AO26? Poorly executed Hanoverian arms without supporters. The front of the bowl is decorated with flowers interspersed with leaves. There are two examples, both of which have the spur absent. Both have been smoked. This bowl has been published previously (Le Cheminant 1981b, 107, fig 2, no. 6).

[13] 12, [202] 140 [ 22back.jpg ] [ 22front.jpg ]

23

Type AO26? Hanoverian arms with lion and unicorn supporters. The front of the bowl is decorated with a tulip with two pairs of pointed leaves. There are two fragmentary bowls with spurs absent. Neither of them has been smoked.

[202] 143, 149 [ 23left.jpg ] [ 23front.jpg ]

24

Type AO25. Hanoverian arms without supporters, moulded poorly in very low relief. The front of the bowl is undecorated. Smoked.

[202] 237 [ 24back.jpg ]

25

Type AO26. Hanoverian arms with large lion and unicorn supporters which extend round to the front of the bowl. The motto of DIEU ET MON DROIT is displayed on a curled ribbon. The frontal decoration comprises two pairs of small flowers. Not smoked.

[13] 59 [ 25right.jpg ]

26

Type AO26. Prince of Wales feathers on the back of the bowl, without a motto. On the front are vines and bunches of grapes. Generally the moulding is very poor and in low relief. However, there is one better example, probably from the same mould earlier in its life. There are 48 examples, most of which have not been smoked.

[13] 11; [202] 115, 120, 122, 123, 125, 129, 132, 133, 134, 137, 160, 177, 182, 183, 185, 187, 190, 191, 192, 193, 194, 197, 205, 206, 218, 223, 227, 232, 250, 257, 262, 265, 268, 272, 275, 278, 280, 284, 290, 291, 296, 302, 304, 312, 315, 316, 320

[ 26back.jpg ] [ 26front.jpg ]

27

Type AO26. Prince of Wales feathers with pellets on the back of the bowl. On the front are a large tulip with paired leaves, and smaller clusters of leaves and berries. There are four examples from the same mould, all of which have been smoked.

[202] 107, 139, 216, 255 [ 27back.jpg ] [ 27front.jpg ]

28

Type AO26. This is an early attempt at a City of London arms design, which became more common in the 19th century. There are three examples, none of which are complete. The lower part of the bowl is ribbed. The arms are on the back of the bowl and there are dragon supporters couchant on either side. The front of the bowl is decorated with crossed batons.

[202] 99, 151, 179 [ 28left.jpg ] [ 28front.jpg ] [ 28right.jpg ]

The kiln muffle fragment

A single, undiagnostic fragment of kiln muffle measuring 110 x 70 x 55mm approximately was recovered from context [202]. The clay matrix has vitrified. Pipe stems are embedded in the clay, all with the same orientation.

Marked pipes from other deposits

29 Marked TC. Type AO25 [24] 353
30 Marked WP. Type AO25 [20] 3
31 Marked I ?R. Type AO25 [20] 4
32 Marked IW. Type AO25 [20] 350
33 Marked with a pellet. Type AO25 [20] 349

Appendix 2: Occupants of Pipemaker's Alley, 17391790

1739–1744

James Hargrove

Sarah Brooks

Richard Pearson

Sarah Howard

Benjamin Coombes

Empty

Empty

Thomas Harris

Worsley

Empty

Thomas Miller

Empty

1745–1750

All 12 properties empty

1751

Empty

Empty

Richard Pearson

Empty

Benjamin Comber

Empty

John Daniel

Chandler

John Rose

William Peckham

Thomas Miller

Empty

1754–1765

5 or 6 Empty

James Mather

Chandler

John Rose

William Peckham (Miller from 1757)

Wood (from 1757)

1766–1780

Peter Pullmont

Widow Cockburn

Jonathan Underwood

George Krick

Ross

Isaac Ball

Jonathan Steward

Stephen Cant

Elizabeth Lawrence

John Jones

1790

Hayden in tenement, for six cotts

Appendix 3: Occupants of Pipe Alley, 1739 (at least) 1747

Mary Gray

William Denbigh

Monday

Richson

William Shephard

Stringer

Appendix 4: The last Will and Testament of James Harrison

The last Will and Testament of me James Harrison of No. 2 Saville Place in the parish of St Mary Lambeth in the county of Surrey, Gent. as follows. I give and bequeath to the three children of my brother William Harrison, blacksmith, late of Ormskirk in the county of Lancaster, namely Thomas, James and Catherine, the sum of one hundred pounds each if they are all living at the time of my decease. If either or any of them die such share or shares to become the property of such survivor or survivors as may then be living, and if all die the property to be then put to my original estate for the benefit of others.

I also give and bequeath to my sister Elizabeth Cross, the wife of William Cross, cratemaker of Eccleston near Prescott in the county of Lancaster aforesaid, if she be living at the time of my decease, or to her husband William Cross in case of her decease (if both should be deceased) the sum of four hundred pounds to be equally divided among their children (the said Elizabeth and William Cross to enjoy the same during their natural lives).

I give and bequeath to the Reverend Mr Groves, Minister of St Margarets but living at No. 7 Dartmouth Street, Westminster, the sum of fifty pounds, and to John Piercy of Tothill Fields in the parish of St John the Evangelist, Westminster the sum of £50 if they should survive, and if not their families to enjoy the same.

I give to George Burchall, tobacco pipe maker of Chatham, seven pounds for mourning and ring. Also I give to Charles Watmore of Old Tothill Street, Westminster, butcher, the sum of five pounds for mourning.

I give and bequeath to the children of my sister Rachell, the wife of the Reverend Robert Stephenson of Alton(?) in the county of Lancaster, also to the children of John Harrison, tobacco pipe maker, late of Liverpool in the county of Lancaster, also and to the children of Mary, the wife of Thomas Tunstall, weaver of Rainford near Prescott in the county of Lancaster aforesaid [the one half of the moiety belonging to the children of Mary Tunstall to be at the disposal of the said Mary Tunstall during her natural life - after her decease to be equally divided among the children then living], the estates, monies in the funds, monies on notes, bonds, annuities and all property I may be possessed of at the time of my decease, to be disposed of and equally divided among the children of the said Rachel Stephenson, John Harrison and Mary Tunstall after paying all my just debts, funeral expenses and all legacies as soon as it can be made convenient, not to exceed twelve months.

I further order if any one of the parties concerned be dissatisfied with their share or want to cause disputes that may occasion law suits that may prejudice another, such persons share to be kept from him or her so dissatisfied and to be divided equally among the other parties concerned and I do appoint Mr George Clarke, tobacco pipe maker of Queens Court, Holborn, Hugh Sutton of Rainford in the county of Lancaster, yeoman, my executors of this my last will and testament. All former wills made by me to be void and of no effect declaring this to be my last, and where unto I have set my hand this tenth day of January 1809. James Harrison. This paper writing was signed in the presence of us the day and year above written, John Simpson, Margaret Bradley, John Piercy.

Proved at London the 19 May 1810 before the worshipful John Godson, Doctor of Laws and Surrogate by the oath of Hugh Sephton, in the will written Sutton, one of the executors to whom administration was granted having been sworn duly to administer. George Clarke the other executor having renounced.

Appendix 5: The last Will and Testament of George Brown

This is the last Will and Testament of me George Brown of Great Peter Street, Westminster in the County of Middlesex, pipe maker. I direct that all my just debts, funeral and testamentary expenses be paid and satisfied as soon as conveniently can be after my decease. I give and bequeath all my estate and effects whatsoever and wheresoever, household furniture, stock in trade, sum or sums of money which shall or may be standing in my name or in trust for me at the time of my decease in the books of the Governor and Company of the Bank of England, and all and every sum and sums of money, securities for money, goods, chattels and effects which I may be possessed of or entitled to at the time of my decease unto my dear wife Sarah Brown, her executors, administrators and assigns to and for her and their own absolute use and benefit. Provided always and my will and desire is that if my said wife shall decline to carry on my trade or business of a pipe maker at the time of my decease, or if at any time during the lifetime of my dear brother William Brown she shall be minded desirous to give up or relinquish such trade or business, that then and in such case I do hereby direct that she shall not sell or dispose of the same, but shall immediately make over to my dear brother William Brown the goodwill and stock in trade (if any such there shall be) of the said trade and business for his own absolute use and benefit. And I do hereby appoint my said dear wife sole executrix of this my will, hereby revoking all former and other wills by me at any time heretofore made, and declare this above to be my last Will and Testament. In testimony whereof I, the said George Brown, the testator, have to this my last Will and Testament set my hand and seal this twenty sixth day of November, one thousand eight hundred and twenty one – George Brown.

Signed, sealed, published and declared by the said George Brown, the testator, as and for his last Will and Testament in the presence of us who at his request, in his presence and in the presence of each other have subscribed our names as witnesses thereto – John Henderson, No. 19 Great Peter Street, Westminster – W Hunter, clerk to Mr Walls [???].

Proved at London 12th June 1824 before the worshipful [???] Adams, Doctor of Laws and sworn by the oath of Sarah Brown, widow, the relict, the sole executrix to whom administration was granted having been first sworn duly to administer.

Appendix 6: Apprenticeship indenture of Henry May

This indenture witnesseth that John Bumpstead and Thomas Townshend, Churchwardens, and Richard Williams and George Prickett, Overseers of the poor of the parish of Saint Mary Hornsey in the county of Middlesex, do by and with the consent of William May put Henry May son of the said William May, a poor boy of the said parish of Hornsey, apprentice to William Monks of no 11 Greycoat Place, Horseferry Road in the parish of St Margarets Westminster in the county of Middlesex Tobacco Pipe Maker, to learn his art and with him (after the manner of an apprentice) to serve from the day of the date hereof unto the full end and term of seven years from thence next following to be complete and ended. During which term the said apprentice his master faithfully shall serve, his secrets keep, his lawful commands everywhere gladly do. He shall do no damage to his said master nor see to be done by others, but to the best of his power shall let or forthwith give warning to his said master of the same. He shall not waste the goods of his said master nor lend them unlawfully to any. He shall not contract matrimony within the said term. He shall not play at any unlawful games whereby his said master may have any loss with his own goods or others. During the said term without licence of his said master, he shall neither buy nor sell. He shall not absent himself from his master's service day or night unlawfully, but in all things as a faithful apprentice he shall behave himself towards his said master and all his during the said term.

And the said William Monks in consideration of the sum of five pounds of lawful money to him paid on the execution of this indenture by the said churchwardens and overseers (out of the rent of an estate called Hornsey Row at Islington applicable for the apprenticing of poor boys of the said parish of Hornsey) doth covenant, promise and agree with the before named churchwardens and overseers and their successors churchwardens and overseers of the said parish and also to and with the said William May that he the said William Monks his said apprentice in the art or mystery of a tobacco pipe maker which he useth by the best means that he can teach and instruct or cause to be taught and instructed, finding unto the said apprentice sufficient meat, drink, wearing apparel, washing and lodging and all other necessaries during the said term so that he shall not in any way be a charge to the said parish of St Mary Hornsey or the parishioners of the same.

22nd August 1833

Signed by John Bumpstead, Thomas Townshend, Richard Williams, George Prickett, William May, Henry May (his mark), William Monks

(London Metropolitan Archives, DRO20/E3/127)

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